Eight years since the beginning of the Arab Spring, the situation in the Maghreb and the Mashriq remains worrying and the security risks are still very present (notably in Tunisia, Libya and Egypt). The arc of instability that crosses the continent south of the Sahara is now almost continuous, from the borders of Mauritania to Kenya, from AQIM (al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb) to al-Shabaab.
In over half the continent, the (delayed) awareness of the spread of a very active radical Islamisation has not given rise to effective responses. Concerns, tensions, and instabilities have spread (Egypt, Morocco, Senegal, Burkina Faso, CAR, Kenya etc), in the context of failing school systems, dissension of social connections and external influences.
At the same time, the fight against terrorism connects states, foreign troops (French, Russian, American etc), and regional organisations (G5 Sahel), without managing to stem the insecurity or halt the threat of attacks and bombings. The coordination of efforts in development, defence and security frequently remain at the point of declarations of intention.
Even if the economic situation is showing some good indicators (growth, creation of wealth), they are not up to the demographic challenge; the inequalities are more and more visible and less accepted by a population that is mostly young. The old centres of political stability are becoming increasingly weak and the ageing regimes are being challenged. Social movements remain regular, sometimes violent, and inter-community, inter-religious and inter-ethnic tensions are present on almost the entire continent.
Home to armed conflict, government instability and extreme poverty, the African continent pushes many of its inhabitants in search of escape to new horizons. In the hope of finding a more stable and supportive environment, these people are at great risk of being trafficked. Large trafficking networks thrive due to a lack of cooperation from, and between, African states. Human trafficking can take many forms and borders on slavery: sex trafficking, child sex trafficking, forced labour (including children), debt bondage and domestic servitude. The African countries most affected are Lybia, Mauritania, Nigeria, Eirtrea, South Sudan, Burundi, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Congo and the Democratic Republic of Congo.